EAGLE VILLAGE FIRE DEPARTMENT

 

How fires Start

Fire Prevention

Fire Safety Check List

How to use a Fire Extinguisher

 


         Hey kids... Check out
    "Sparky the fire dog's website!"
Click here to put out the fire fun!

Also check out RISK WATCH for Kids!

 


 

HOW FIRES START

Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur:

FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they will burn.

OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen.

HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.


CHEMICAL REACTION - A chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this rapid oxidation, or burning takes place.



Take any one of these factors away, and the fire cannot occur or will be extinguished if it was already burning.

 

HOW FIRES ARE CLASSIFIED
CLASS A
Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics.
CLASS B
Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane.
CLASS C
Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes and power tools.
CLASS D
Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care.


HOW TO PREVENT FIRES

Class A — Ordinary combustibles:
Keep storage and working areas free of trash Place oily rags in covered containers.


Class B — Flammable liquids or gases:
Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined space, especially in the presence of an open flame such as a furnace or water heater.

Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment while it's hot.

Keep flammable liquids stored in tightly closed, self-closing, spill-proof containers. Pour from storage drums only what you'll need.

Store flammable liquids away from spark-producing sources.

Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas.


Class C — Electrical equipment:
Look for old wiring, worn insulation and broken electrical fittings. Report any hazardous condition to your supervisor.

Prevent motors from overheating by keeping them clean and in good working order. A spark from a rough-running motor can ignite the oil and dust in it.

Utility lights should always have some type of wire guard over them. Heat from an uncovered light bulb can easily ignite ordinary combustibles.

Don't misuse fuses. Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit.

Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange. Unusual odors can be the first sign of fire.

Don't overload wall outlets. Two outlets should have no more than two plugs.


Class D — Flammable metals:
Flammable metals such as magnesium and titanium generally take a very hot heat source to ignite; however, once ignited are difficult to extinguish as the buring reaction produces sufficient oxygen to support combusion, even under water.

In some cases, covering the burning metal with sand can help contain the heat and sparks from the reaction. Class D exinguishing agents are available (generally as a dry powder in a bucket or box) which can be quite effective, but these agents are rare on the campus.

If you are planning a research project using a large amount of flammable metals you should consider purchasing a five or ten pound container of Class-D extinguishing agent as a precaution.

Pure metals such as potassium and sodium react violently (even explosively) with water and some other chemicals, and must be handled with care. Generally these metals are stored in sealed containers in a non-reactive liquid to prevent decay (surface oxidation) from contact with moisture in the air.

White phosphorus is air-reactive and will burn/explode on contact with room air. It must be kept in a sealed container with a non-reactive solution to prevent contact with air.

All of these metals are not uncommon in labs on the OU campus, but are generally only found in small quantities and accidental fires/reactions can be controlled or avoided completely through knowledge of the properties of the metals and using good judgement and common sense.


WHEN NOT TO FIGHT A FIRE

Never fight a fire:

  • If the fire is spreading beyond the spot where it started
     
  • If you can't fight the fire with your back to an escape exit
     
  • If the fire can block your only escape
     
  • If you don't have adequate fire-fighting equipment
In any of these situations,
 
DON'T FIGHT THE FIRE YOURSELF.
CALL FOR HELP.


HOW TO EXTINGUISH SMALL FIRES

Class A - Extinguish ordinary combustibles by cooling the material below its ignition temperature and soaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition.

Use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose(ABC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers. DO NOT USE carbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers on Class A fires.
 


Class B - Extinguish flammable liquids, greases or gases by removing the oxygen, preventing the vapors from reaching the ignition source or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction.

Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, and halon extinguishers may be used to fight Class B fires.
 


Class C - Extinguish energized electrical equipment by using an extinguishing agent that is not capable of conducting electrical currents.

Carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical and halon* fire extinguishers may be used to fight Class C fires. DO NOT USE water extinguishers on energized electrical equipment.

* Even though halon is widely used, EPA legislation is phasing it out of use in favor of agents less harmful to the environment.

Class D - Extinguish combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium with dry powder extinguishing agents specially designated for the material involved.

In most cases, they absorb the heat from the material, cooling it below its ignition temperature.

NOTE: Multipurpose (ABC-rated)chemical extinguishers leave a residue that can harm sensitive equipment, such as computers and other electronic equipment. Because of this, carbon dioxide or halon extinguishers are preferred in these instances because they leave very little residue.

ABC dry powder residue is mildly corrosive to many metals. For example, residue left over from the use of an ABC dry powder extinguisher in the same room with a piano can seriously corrode piano wires.

Carbon dioxide or halon extinguishers are provided for most labs and computer areas on campus.



HOW TO IDENTIFY THE PROPER FIRE EXTINGUISHER


All ratings are shows on the extinguisher faceplate. Some extinguishers are marked with multiple ratings such as AB, BC and ABC. These extinguishers are capable of putting out more than one class of fire.

Class A and B extinguishers carry a numerical rating that indicates how large a fire an experienced person can safely put out with that extinguisher.

Class C extinguishers have only a letter rating to indicate that the extinguishing agent will not conduct electrical current. Class C extinguishers must also carry a Class A or B rating.

Class D extinguishers carry only a letter rating indicating their effectiveness on certain amounts of specific metals.

 


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DON'T LET THIS HAPPEN TO YOUR HOME!


BEWARE! TAKE FIRE PREVENTION CARE!

TRUE OR FALSE:
A fire is something that happens...

  1. On a television newscast!
  2. To somebody else's home!
  3. To another person's business!
  4. In a remote location - away from you and your family.


If you said TRUE four times, we all have some work to do. Let's be realistic! If you've never been the victim of a fire - or known someone who has, you are very fortunate. Let's keep it that way.

These few reminders may seem quite simple, and they are. But when you stop and think a moment, the simple basics can save lives- much suffering - and a great deal of property.




EXIT DRILLS IN THE HOME
(E.D.I.T.H)
 

  1. Prepare a floor plan of your home showing at least two ways out of each room.
     
  2. Sleep with your bedroom door closed. It helps to hold back heat and smoke.
     
  3. Agree on a fixed location out-of-doors where family members are to gather for a head count.
     
  4. Make certain that no one goes back inside.
     
  5. Practice - Practice - Practice.

IF YOUR HOME CAUGHT FIRE,
WOULD YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO?
 
WOULD YOUR CHILDREN?
For a fire to exist there must be three things present...

OXYGEN
FUEL
HEAT
These three elements make up what is commonly
called the FIRE TRIANGLE.


Oxygen is always present in the home. If, however, you can separate heat sources from combustibles, you will have taken the first step toward fire prevention.

HEAT SOURCES:

Anything that produces heat, for example...
  1. Stoves
     
  2. Heating appliances
     
  3. Fireplaces
     
  4. Damaged electrical wiring
FUEL SOURCES:

Anything that will burn, for example...
  • Clothing
     
  • Furniture
     
  • Curtains
     
  • Flammable liquids


IF A FIRE SHOULD OCCUR IN YOUR HOME...

1. GET OUT OF THE HOUSE.
Familiarize yourself with at least two exits from each room; for example, one window and one door. Know where the exits are; practice using them.

2. HAVE A MEETING PLACE LOCATED OUTSIDE THE HOUSE
A fire is no time to be worrying about who made it out and who did not. By establishing a central meeting place outside the house, you can count heads and not have to wonder who might still be inside.

3. PHONE THE FIRE DEPARTMENT
FROM A NEIGHBOR'S HOUSE


4. NEVER GO BACK INSIDE FOR ANY REASON!
Once you are outside, do not go back inside. The fire department will be there in a matter of minutes. Stay at the meeting place and wait for the fire department.


IN A FIRE, SECONDS COUNT!
For early detection of fires, install smoke detectors near your sleeping areas. If you have a multi-story house, install smoke detectors at each level in the home.

Design a home fire escape plan; practice using it.

Establishing EXIT DRILLS IN THE HOME (E.D.I.T.H.) will insure that everyone in the home will be familiar with the proper procedures should a fire occur.

If you have sleeping areas located on the second floor, provide an escape ladder or rope. Check these carefully to make certain they are safe.

Check windows that would be used in an escape to see that they open easily.

Should you be caught in smoke, CRAWL! Smoke rises, so stay close to the floor where the air will be less toxic.

Clothing, should it ignite, will burn rapidly. If your clothes ignite, DO NOT RUN...STOP, DROP, AND ROLL!


REMEMBER, THE BEST STEP TO TAKE IS TO PREVENT FIRES FROM OCCURRING

Knowing what to do should fire occur is very important. More important still is the prevention of a fire. Take the time to inspect your home for possible safety hazards, bare wires, and improperly operating heating equipment.

Fire prevention is something the entire family may participate in. Encourage children to assist with checking the home for hazards.

By taking the time to carefully inspect your home for possible hazards, you may prevent a major catastrophe later on.

 


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HOME FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
PRE-FIRE PLANNING YES NO
Have you planned at least two ways to get out of every room in your home?
Do you keep exit routes clear in your home?
Do you know how to notify your fire department quickly and correctly in case of fire?
ESPECIALLY FOR CHILDREN YES NO
Do you make it a rule never to leave small children alone or unattended?
Do your baby-sitters (and you) know the first rule of safety in fire emergencies? —Get everybody out fast, and don't go back in.
Do you show your baby-sitters the escape routes from your home, and give instructions on the correct way to report a fire?
GOOD SMOKING HABITS YES NO
Is smoking in bed strictly against the rule in your home?
Do you always make sure that cigarette, cigar and pipe ashes are completely extinguished before you dispose of them? Before going to bed, be SURE there are no cigarettes still burning.
Are matches kept out of the reach of children? Keep matches and lighters above the "strike zone" (too high for children to reach).
HEATING AND COOKING YES NO
Are furnaces, stoves and smokepipes kept in good repair and located far enough away from combustible walls and ceilings so that they do not create a hazard? Use a fireplace screen to prevent sparks from flying.
If you have portable space heaters in your home do you see that they are properly maintained and located? Keep portable space heaters away from people, curtains, and furniture.
Do you have an annual inspection of your heating system? Have heating equipment checked and cleaned each year.
Do your sleeves get into things when you cook? Wear tight-fitting clothing when you cook.
Can you stop a cooking fire safely? Smother a pan fire with a lid. Never use water. If cooking oil starts to smoke, turn down the heat. Don't throw whatever's handy on the counter, such as dumping flower from the bag, on the fire (explosion!)
ELECTRICITY YES NO
Do you see that extension cords are never run under rugs or hooked over nails? Avoid using extension cords wherever possible (especially small-wired cords use with high-wattage appliances.)
When the breaker "trips" or a fuse blows, do you investigate WHY it happened? If a fuse blows (or a breaker "trips"), find the cause. Remove excess appliances (lamps, stereo components, space heaters, etc.) from a breaker circuit that frequently "trips".
Is the right size fuse (20 amps for lighting circuits) in each socket in the fuse box? Replace the fuse with one of the correct size.
Is your TV well ventillated? Allow air space around the TV to prevent overheating. If it doesn't work right, it can be a fire danger.
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING YES NO
Do you keep rubbish cleaned out of the attic, basement, closets, garage and yard? Sort and remove rubbish. Don't store things near the furnace or heater.
Are gasoline and other flammable liquids stored in safety cans, and kept well away from both heat and children? Move flammable liquids away from heat. Do not store flammable liquids in the home. Keep them stored outside and away from the house in a separate storage building. Don't fill a hot lawn mower or other motor; let it cool first.

 


HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER

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Remember the acronym, "P.A.S.S."—

 
P ......Pull the Pin.


 
A ......Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flames.
S ......Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright.
S ......Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the
area of the fire with the extinguishing agent.